The motors made for RC planes and cars are high speed and high power.
For example, the Turnigy Trackstar 1/10 12.0T 3300KV Brushless Motor, $23 specs are:
Max Voltage: 15v
Max current: 35amps
Max RPM: 50000
The load on a microfuge will be greater–22 tubes x 1.5 ml can be roughly 44g, figure a 100g total load with the rotor. So slower than max, but still quite fast.
High power ESC modules are sold to run these motors. So they take DC power, and a servo like signal (PWM), +5, GRD.
So a 10k RPM microfuge can be made with one of these motors + ESC, a servo for locking the lid, and a microcontroller to run it, take speed / time settings, and monitor and show the RPMs on a display.
Power could be from a PC power supply or a dedicated supply.